新加坡前外长杨荣文五四百年致辞:需要一场新的新文化运动
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新加坡前外长杨荣文五四百年致辞:需要一场新的新文化运动

译者:蔡志礼 博士

        今天是五四运动一百周年纪念,新加坡前外长杨荣文为南洋孔教会主办的“五四运动百年纪念国际学术研讨会—从反传统到回归传统”发表书面致辞。

        以下是书面致辞全文:

        经历了一个世纪,世界局势发生巨大转变。过去遭列强蹂躏的中国,如今令列强越来越畏惧,对中国本质的误判,更加深了列强的恐惧感。不像当年帝国列强漠视中国的权益,引爆了五四运动,中国向来都没有帝国殖民的传统,只维护中国认为合法的国家利益。历史的教训让中国了解,奉行帝国殖民主义必自毙。不要干预他国内政,共生共荣方为上策。

        在我们庆祝五四百年之际,中华民族应弘扬的五四精神是什么?应该是刚强与纯净的精神。欠缺刚强力量,中国人将再度被欺凌,但是刚强的中国不应怀有报复之心,也不可打压其他国家。中国梦不应是帝国梦,而是以植根纯净心灵为依据的美德。中国的发展必须奉行普世主义,尊重并包容一个多元的世界。否则,中国的崛起将无可避免地导致反中联盟的出现,而最终落得悲惨的下场。

        一百年前,五四运动为海内外华人掀起了新文化运动。今日我们需要一场新的新文化运动,让中国的发展造福全人类。我们需要一个超越个人、家庭、亲属、朋友和中国政治,可包容多元文化和宗教,并宣扬“四海之内,皆兄弟也”的新儒家思想。21世纪的儒家思想,必须涵盖越来越综合性和城市化的世界。例如在社交媒体上,“礼”的表现就是一个严峻但必须面对的挑战。文明的社会,不可无礼。单靠法律是无法维系健全的网络空间。

        我们需要来一场赛先生(Mr. Science)和德先生(Mr. Democracy)的新辩论。赛先生必须涵盖信息科技、人工智慧和生物科技的革命对人类社会道德的新挑战。德先生有必要认清国内与国际间政治和经济领域竞争的极限。在特定的时空里保持妥善的平衡,是一种政治艺术。

         五四百年纪念不只是一个庆典,也是一个严肃反思和落实行动的关键时机。

 

原文:

After a hundred years, world conditions have changed dramatically. China, from being downtrodden by the major powers is now increasingly feared by them. This fear is aggravated by a misunderstanding of China’s nature. Unlike the imperial powers whose contempt for the rights of the Chinese people led to the May 4th Movement, China has no imperialistic tradition even though it will defend what it considers to be its legitimate national interest. Learning from history, China knows that imperialism leads to its own negation. It is wiser not to interfere in the affairs of others; better to work for mutual benefit.

As we celebrate the centennial anniversary, what should be the living spirit of May 4th that the Chinese people should foster?  It must be that a people must be strong and pure in spirit.  Without strength, the Chinese people can expect to be bullied again.  However, that strength should not lead to the opposite of China taking historical revenge and bullying others.  The China dream cannot be an imperial dream. Instead, it must be based on a pure spirit founded on virtue. As China develops, its spirit must be universalist, embracing all of humanity while respecting its diversity.  Otherwise, the rise of China will inevitably lead to a countervailing alliance of anti-China forces which can only lead to tragedy.

A hundred years ago, the May 4th Movement gave a strong push to the New Culture Movement for Chinese people including those living outside China.  Today, we need a new New Culture Movement which makes China’s development a blessing for the world.  We need a new Confucianism which goes beyond self, family, relatives, friends and the governance of the Chinese state, to include those of different cultures and religions.  It must reach out to foreigners and give substance to the teaching of Confucius that ‘within the four seas, all men are brothers (四海之内皆兄弟也)’.  21st century Confucianism has to be taken into account a world that is increasingly mixed and urbanized.  For example, the application of  li (礼)in the social media is a huge challenge but absolutely necessary.  Without li, civilized society is not possibleLaws alone are not enough for a healthy cyberspace.

We need a new debate between Mr Science and Mr Democracy.  Mr Science has to take into account the revolution in IT, AI and biotech, each of which poses new moral challenges for human society.  Mr Democracy must recognize the limits of competition in political and economic affairs, within countries and among countries.  What the proper balance at a particular time and place should be is a political art.

The Centennial Anniversary of May 4th is therefore not only a celebration but also an occasion for serious reflection and action.

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